A REALLY BIG CHANGE IN CULTURE - SURVIVING IN THE POST-GLACIAL PERIOD
THE RISE OF THE DESERT ARCHAIC CULTURES

As the climate became even hotter than it is at present, the people became more dependent on plant foods, as animal prey became scarce. A more sedentary lifestyle followed the introduction of squash, maize, and beans. Pit homes, which may have originally been below-ground storage areas, began to appear.

With the dis-appearance of their trophy animals, the Mega Fauna, they were forced to adapt to a new environment, and new survival strategies. Said one aging Clovis hunter to members of his clan,
SOUTHERN ARIZONA IN LATE PLEISTOCENE
SAME REGION IN ARIZONA TODAY
"Forever more you shall be known of as the Archaic people and by the way, here's a bow and arrow which I just got from Uncle Eagle Claw over in New Mexico.... Cool, eh?"
As a result, by 11,000-10,500 B.P.E. the Clovis culture (described on another page) was beginning to give way to more regional variants, which are generally called Archaic cultures. Except on the Great Plains, where the focus remained on hunting bison, the human subsistence strategy seems to have become more diversified, with medium and small mammals and various plant foods being added to the menu. These people were highly mobile and lived by plant and seed gathering, supplemented by hunting of modern fauna. Though the herds of large grazing herbivores were gone, browsing animals such as pronghorn and deer were still living in the mountains. The people probably came down to the lowlands when the rains made the desert fruitful and retreated to the mountain regions when water was scarce. They developed milling stones such as those found at Double Adobe to process tiny seed grains. Later, as the climate became even hotter than it is at present, the people became more dependent on plant foods, as animal prey became scarce. A more sedentary lifestyle followed the introduction of squash, maize, and beans. Pit homes, which may have originally been below-ground storage areas, began to appear.
Cochise Culture
In southeastern Arizona, erosion during the past 50 years by such streams as San Simon Creek, San Pedro River, and others, has exposed deep below the present surface the camp sites of one of Arizona's earliest people, the Cochise Culture. Fortunately, the accumulated natural overburden of clays, silts, sands, and the like, mirror the geological events of bygone millennia and provide the student of past climate with a measure of time. Expert opinion places the age of the oldest tools of Cochise Man, covered by and imbedded in the deposits laid down in a moist period, as older than 10,000 years. These tools consist mainly of milling stones and hand stones, primitive choppers and scrapers, all indicative of a food-gathering economy which exploited native vegetal foods, as contrasted to the use of projectile points and fine-cutting implements associated with the Folsom hunters of the high plains east of the Rocky Mountains. The animals of the time included the mammoth, horse, bison, camel, and a large wolf, all of which have since vanished from the scene.
ARCHAIC PETROGLYPHS
In the same region where the evidences of Cochise Man have been found, occur also traces of a later people, assignable to two successive periods of time on a geological basis. They persisted through the periods when climate was changing from the moister, cooler type towards the climate we have today, and the animals were modern, or those which still inhabit the area. The record of these people ends about the time of Christ, when profound changes in the whole cultural make-up are recorded.
ARCHAIC-PALEO INDIAN ATL ATL POINTS
Because of similarities between the tools and the way of life of these people and the still earlier Cochise Culture, a continuity of occupation has been inferred, giving us, in fact, an inkling of human affairs in this region over thousands of years rather than for centuries, and supplying information, though sketchy, through that long interval between the truly ancient native American and his younger successor of the time of Christ, an interval which elsewhere has not as yet been filled in.
Ventana Cave ("ventana"=window)

How widely the people we call the Cochise Culture ranged through the Southwest at this remote time still remains to be determined, but telltale traces have been found beyond the reaches of the southeastern tributaries of the Colorado River in New Mexico and Old Mexico.

MY IDEA OF WHAT THE VIEW WAS LIKE FROM VENTANA CAVE WHEN MEGA-FAUNA HUNTING WAS AT ITS BEST (THE HIGHWAY WAS PROBABLY NOT THERE 12,000 YEARS AGO)
ENTRANCE TO VENTANA CAVE IN MONDERN TIME DURING EXCAVATION
To the west, within the Colorado River Basin, in the area now inhabited by the Papago Indians, an important cave (Ventana Cave) has recently been excavated, throwing further light on these people and their culture. This cave is located some 80 air-line miles west of Tucson and a comparable distance south of Phoenix. The significance of this cave lies in the fact that it was inhabited, with few interruptions, from almost the present time back to that distant era of moist climate approaching the last glacial period. Here the debris which accumulated through this long occupation appears layer upon layer in the order of time.
LIFE FOR THE ANCIENT PEOPLE IN VENTANA CAVE. THE MEN ARE OBVIOUSLY OUT. ON THE HUNT? NOTICE THE USE OF THE SMALL MANO AND METATE FOR GRINDING SIGN THAT THIS SCENE MIGHT BE OF ARCHAIC PEOPLE.
The tools of the Cochise Culture lie in the middle portion towards the base of a 15-foot-thick trash pile. Directly associated with these tools are other types of chipped stone implements, like those of the people of the lower Colorado River Basin and the Pinto and Mohave Basins of southeastern California, giving some indication of contemporary neighboring groups. But, more important is the fact that at the very bottom of Ventana Cave in a rocklike layer were a number of stone tools used by hunters and with them occurred the bones of extinct bison, sloth, tapir, horse, and the four-horned antelope. Some relationship with the Folsom hunters of the high plains is indicated, as well as with an early folk whose products have been found toward the mouth of the Colorado River. This material is considered, upon geologic evidence, as more than 10,000 years old.
Double Adobe

At this site twelve miles northwest of Douglas in the Whitewater Draw area, bones of mammoth, horse, bison, antelope, coyote and dire wolf were found associated with artifacts in re-deposited stream sediments. Artifacts included fire-cracked rock, projectile points, and small grinding stones. Although there are hunting tools at the site, the 316 milling stones are the most prominent evidence. The presence of grinding stones has been interpreted to mean that humans were beginning to adapt to the changing environment that followed the end of the Ice Age and the extinction of many of the large mammals. The coming of the Holocene Era (10,000 Before Present Era) brought warmer and drier conditions to the southwest, and people either moved on to other areas or modified their lifestyles to suit local resources. Somewhere between 11,000-10,500 B.P.E. (Before Common Era what's wrong with just saying "Ago?) the Clovis culture was beginning to change, lamenting the disappearance of their big game animals.

YOUR MOTHER WANTS US TO SETTLE DOWN, SON. START DIGGING A BIG HOLE
Archaeologists call these "Pit Houses," though the term is a bit misleading because most of the structure was still above ground. formed the basic domestic architecture in the area for more than a thousand years, were built by forming a pit in the ground, pounding the dirt floor and roofing it over with a framework of heavy sticks which were covered with grass, sticks and earth.
Being now Archaic, meant that people had to think about more than hunting. Rudimentary agriculture came to be. With that idea that they could actually plant seeds, wait a while, and with a little TLC and a lot of luck, there would be a crop. But they couldn't be wandering around the region hunting and gathering, the Desert Archaic people needed to water and tend to fields. First there may have been simple domed wickiups that were relatively quickly constructed from branches and brush. Later, the idea of first digging a "pit" on which to place the woody structure was introduced. The idea of a permanent structure, and a permanent or semi permanent village was born in Arizona.
THE DISCOVER OF AN INCREASING NUMBER OF GRINDING STONES IN LATE PALEO-INDIAN TIMES AND IN THE EARLY ARCHAIC SHOWS A TREND TOWARD TOWARD MORE PERMANENT SETTLEMENTS AND USE OF PROCESSED PLANTS.
With the exception of stone tools and distinctive projectile points, the Desert Archaic people left few artifacts and as a distinct culture, they were gone disappeared before the time of the birth of Christ. Did they disappear? Move? The reality, it seems, is that these people stayed put, and changed to spawn a number of new distinctive cultures rooted in this Desert Archaic Period: the Mogollon, Basketmaker and Anasazi, Hohokam, Salado, and many others familiar or not to the casual archaeology enthusiast.
ARCHAIC ATLATL DART POINT
MOGOLLON
Pronounced "mug-e-own" The name Mogollon comes from Don Juan Ignacio Flores Mogollón, Spanish Governor of New Mexico from 1712-1715, and this culture became associated with the Mogollon region of Arizona, their homeland.
MOGOLLON EFFEGY JAR: WAS THERE MESO-AMERICAN INFLUENCE?
Mogollon culture was named by Emil Haury after the Mogollon area of New Mexico. Haury defined this culture, which existed from about 200 AD to 1000 AD, as characterized initially by pit houses and brown pottery. Villages at first were on hilltops near the river valleys, but later larger villages were frequently located near rivers. Pit homes gradually became more numerous and complex. Although the people did significant farming, it is not known to what extent they continued to rely on native plants and animals for their subsistence.
THE MOGOLLON PREFERED TO LIVE PINE COUNTRY ABOVE THE DESERT FLOOR
The Mogollon people began expanding down into the mountains of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico about 200 BC. There they found easily defensible home sites on rocky promontories from which they could descend into the valley to carry on rudimentary farming, growing first corn and later beans, squash and bottle gourds. They did not build cities like the impressive pueblo villages, but their pit houses gradually became more complex, sometimes including a larger building for communal gatherings. The people continued to rely on native plants and animals for much of their subsistence.
THE MOGOLLON SPREAD OVER WIDE AREA
Excavations at San Simon Village and Cave Creek Village are significant Mogollon culture sites in Cochise County. The Gleeson site, occupied about 900 AD, shows some cultural diversity, with features of both Mogollon and Hohokam cultures. Thirty-five houses were excavated there as well as pottery, projectile points, carved figurines and a variety of tools.
STRANGE PAINTED BOWLS OF THE MIMBRES PHASE OF THE MOGOLLON MAY REFLECT AN ISOLATED CULT WITHIN THE CULTURE. MOST MIMBRES BOWLS HAVE BEEN KILLED: TWO THEORIES ON WHY HOLES WERE PUNCHED IN THE BOTTOMS OF BOWLS SUGGEST IT WAS DONE TO ALLOW THE SPIRIT OF THE DISEASED TO EXIT (BOWLS WERE PLACED OVER THE FACE OF THE DEAD), OR, MORE PRAGMATICALLY, THE BOWLS WERE INTENTIONALLY RUINED TO STOP CONTEMPORARY LOOTING OF THESE VALUABLE CEREMONIAL CERAMICS
MOGOLLON WHITE AND BROWNWARES FOR EVERYDAY USE WERE AS STUNNING AS THEY WERE USEFUL.
The best-known remains of the Mogollon are their pottery. The art was developed over a period of nearly a thousand years. As it became more diverse, simple geometric designs on brown were replaced by more complex red-on-white and finally by the well-known black-on-white designs of the famous Mimbres pottery. The Amerind Foundation in Dragoon, Arizona, has a striking collection of Native American pottery. AMERIND is a contraction of American + Indian.
After the early innovations, the Mogollon culture evolved very little and was gradually swallowed up by the more dynamic cultures of the north. By about 1450 AD they had merged physically and culturally with the Anasazi. The prehistoric Pueblo cultures, which included the Anasazi, developed in the northern areas of what is now Arizona and spread south, reaching the Salt and Gila Rivers by about 1200 AD. By 1400 AD, however, those cultures were breaking up and soon disappeared. By the time the Spaniards arrived in the sixteenth century, the local Indians had no recollection of the people who had built the magnificent Casa Grande structures or the cliff dwellings.
HOHOKAM
(The term Hohokam is said to be Pima for ?those who have vanished,? or "all used up"

No one is sure where the first Hohokam came from. They could have migrated from Mexico by following the streams of the desert. Or, a certain group of "archaic" people may developed a technique of farming, villages, and hand technology weaving their own society and culture. Odd, but cultural memories are short,that the Piman's who gave us the name Hohokam, meaning "those who have vanished," are direct descendents of the Hohokam themselves. Nobody went anywhere!

TYPICAL HOHOKAM OLLA (OY' AH)
The Hohokam, however, are known as farmers. They are said to have become the most skillful "desert agriculturalists". With just the simplest tools of stone, the Hohokam had built an irrigation and network system of canals that spanned from the Salt and Gila Rivers which watered their farmland, and they grew many crops in the arid, harsh desert of the Southwest.
ENIGMATIC HOHOKAM PALETTES ARE FREQUENT FOUND ASSOCIATED WITH CREMATIONS WHILE SOME STILL RETAIN PAINT PIGMENTS AND TRACES OF LEAD. HOHOKAM PALETTES WERE MOST OFTEN MADE OF SLATE OR FINE SHALE.
The Hohokam and the time periods in which they occupied the desert have been broken down into four time periods, the Pioneer Period, the Colonial Period, the Sedentary Period, and finally, the Classic period.
The Hohokam were producing bowls and jars in this period. These bowls and jars were plain, but they were well produced. These plainwares were gradually replaced by buff-colored vessels decorated with red designs. An interesting fact about the Hohokam is that they did not develop this wonderful farming and ceramic knowledge with their migration into the desert. The Hohokam came to the Southwest with this knowledge already a major part of their society and culture.
THIS COULD BE A HOHOKAM POTTER; THE CRAFT HASN'T CHANGED MUCH IN CENTURIES
Other materials produced at this time where polished stone bowls, palettes, axes and shell ornaments. The Hohokam also used metates and mano to grind dry plant food. By the time the Pioneer period ended, the Hohokam had migrated to Phoenix and Tucson and the junctions of Verde and Salt Rivers. The agave plant as seen on right was a staple agricultural product for the Hohokam, used for food, fermented for an alcoholic beverage and strong fibers within its leaves for durable thread.
CANALS WERE ONE OF SEVERAL PUBLIC WORK PROJECTS FOR HOHOKAM PEOPLE
COLONIAL PERIOD
The second period, called the Colonial Period, is one of expansion and exploration of the Hohokam Culture. The period dates from A.D. 550 through A.D. 900. With this expansion, the Hohokam were able to improve there farming methods, populations grew, and trade was more extensive. One reason or theory that has been stated is that the Hohokam and the society still had their close ties with the Mexican societies of that time. Most of the new influences and traits could be detected and seen through the building of their homes and structures. The villages became large, the plat form mounds which is a hard surfaced, flat mound topped with ceremonial structures or so that structures could be built and finally, ball courts.
EVERYONE TURNS OUT FOR THE GAME; LARAGE BALL COURTS ARE FOUND ASSOCIATED WITH MANY HOHOKAM VILLAGE RUINS AROUND TUCSON
Also at this time, the canal grew and became more useful. The canals were cut deeper and more narrow so more water could flow through the canal and with less surface evaporation. The red-on-buff pottery also becomes more elaborate. The designs, such as quail and rows of dancers were repeated bands on plates and bowls. There was also another change in the art work of the culture. Ceramic figurines and "non-utilitarian" objects were drawn and sculpted from clay with much care.
WHO'S FACES DO THESE HOHOKAM ARTIFACTS REPRESENT?
DOGS WERE IMPORTANT TO THE HOHOKAM
The ceramic figures were very lifelike, and were male and females figures which often emphasized their sexual "attributes". The non-utilitarian objects are sculptured stone bowls or effigies which were decorated with a wide assortment of animal designs. These figures, found with buries, could represent some sort of ritual dealing with burials. And finally, the plaque or mirror which is mosaic or made from pyrites which are reflective in nature, is further proof the contact the Hohokam had with native Mesoamerica, in which these plaques and mirrors come from.
SEDENTARY PERIOD
The third period of Hohokam culture is called the Sedentary Period. The Sedentary Period dates from A.D 900 through A.D. 1100. During this time, the Hohokam had reduced their "experimentation and elaboration in arts and crafts". The mass production of artifacts and pottery instead of one theme of the individual pottery or bowl maker may have been a cause of decline of art work in the Hohokam culture.
SHELL, TRADED FROM TRIBES NEAR THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND MADE INTO ORNAMENTS, IS SAID TO BE THE HALLMARK OF THE ANCIENT HOHOKAM.
The Hohokam discovered how to decorate shell by etching. The Hohokam were the only culture in the Americas to use this process and they did so centuries before cultures in Europe began to etch objects and designs. They could etch a design in the shell by dipping the shell in a weak "acid" produced by cactus juice which had fermented, which ate away the surface of the shell. The Hohokam also created necklaces and earrings from shell beads. They made pendants in forms of discs, circles, frogs, birds, and horned frogs.
Storage jars that were large and with the "Gila" shoulder were more dominate then other jars that were made at this time. The red-on-buff pattered bowls and jars were used, and the patters were more geometric and became more complicated. The bowls and palettes of stone that the Hohokam used were less elaborate, while the mosaic plaques of Mesoamerica become more elaborate. The Hohokam started to work with shell during this time period, and made some remarkable art work with this material. They used techniques such as etching, which was used only in this period, to shape and design their shells. The famous small, copper bells of Mesoamerica were first found in this period.
The first, the Pioneer Period begins from 300 B.C. through A.D. 550. At this time frame, the Hohokam built small, scattered settlements of mud houses over pits which were shallow. Their "houses" usually were constructed of pole, brush and mud. In the photo above, the Hohokam pithouse clearly shows that it was a substantial structure. Compare this with the photo on the left of an excavated prehistoric site: holes surrounding the perimeter of the pithouses and within contained supporting beams. Other holes were cysts which held pottery storage vessels and other household needs, and for hearths. The doorways are clearly visible.
This photo is of a multi-component site. Shown here are at least three pithouse "footprints," of differing time-periods, superimposed one on each other. Likely, the builders of these houses were unaware that their own chosen house site was used generations before. The architectural advances in this period improved slightly as compared with the Colonial Period. These advances involved ceremonial structures, one of which may be the rectangular floor at top of photo.
When southern Arizona belonged to the Hohokam, from about A.D. 1 to 1450, they engineered hundreds of miles of canals to irrigate their fields.The greatest prehistoric farming civilization in the Americas was located where Phoenix now stands. Dozens of Hohokam villages and farmsteads once dotted the landscape.

When Spanish explorers arrived in the sixteenth century, they found the Hohokam villages in ruins. However, they also found thriving villages of Akimel O'odham (Pima) natives, who claim to be descendents of the Hohokam. Pueblo Grande Museum and Archaeological Park is dedicated to increasing knowledge and understanding of the peoples of the Southwest, past and present

HOHOKAM PIT HOUSE VILLAGE. SOME VILLAGE COMPLEXES, LIKE LOS MORTEROS (THE MORTERS) NORTH OF TUCSON,EXISTED, VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED, FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS
The mounds or platform mounds were better constructed and some underwent reconstruction. Overall, the patterns of settlement changed very little, although houses were now sometimes arranged and built around the plaza. The migration of the Hohokam into the valley also remained fairly stable, with the expansion heading North and east of the Flagstaff region. This movement could have been the result of the improvement of the soil that they farmed from ash and cinders deposited by a volcano. The Hohokam still had ceremonies, and the burial of the dead were first apparent in this time period.
WHEN EXCAVATED, THE PLATFORM MOUND'S USES BECOME MORE CLEAR
THIS BARREN HILL IS AN UN-EXCAVATED PLATFORM MOUND
CLASSIC PERIOD
The last time period of the Hohokam cultured is called the Classic Period. The time line for the Classic Period is from A.D. 1100 through A.D. 1450. Researchers that felt at one time that this period was the "apex" of the Hohokam culture, now feel that with such an overall change of it's culture that the culture of the Hohokam became weak. The central area of the Hohokam culture was still strong, but the outlying areas were becoming abandoned.
CASA GRANDE, IS ONE OF THE BEST ABOVE-GROUND EXAMPELES OF HOHOKAM ARCHITECTURE. PADRE KINO HELD SERVICES IN THIS STRUCTURE
The Hohokam grew a multitude of crops. They grew cotton, corn, and several types of beans and squash. As stated before, these people developed and built a complex system of canals for their crops. The only tool known so far that the Hohokam used to farm and cultivate their crops were sharp, wooden digging sticks and handheld hoes made from rock slabs which were thin in design. Corn, however, like most cultures, was their staple crop. With this crop it could be roasted, dried, ground and the flour of ground corn makes a nourishing drink. Beans and squash were also very important to the Hohokam diet at this time. The beans could be dried and shelled which then could be added to stews or boiled to make a stew. Squash could also be eaten in a number of ways. The Hohokam could boil the blossoms, dry the seeds, or dry strips into some type of "fruit" to be used for food during the winter months. Cotton was used for both food and clothing. The seeds of the cotton plant were dried, ground and then formed into cakes. The fiber of the cotton could be spun into yard and woven into clothes such as shirts, ponchos and belts. The finished yard of the Hohokam could also have been traded with other cultures for items the Hohokam could use in their society. The Hohokam also modified the desert to grow agave as a major crop. Agave can be used for a variety of purposes but is an excellent food that can be roasted in an earthen oven. Finally, in additional to the farming that they did, the Hohokam also gathered the edible weeds that grew in their field and area. The weeds could be gathered for green vegetables and seeds such as pigweed, sunflower and tansy mustard for consumption.
The Hohokam still practiced hunting and gathering during drought and winter months. The Hohokam would gather Mesquite beans that grew in the valley along with the fruits of the local cacti such as saguaro, cholla, prickly pear and barrel cactus. They also gathered agave crowns, acorns, manzanita berries and other small fruits of the Northern Mountain region. The Hohokam did not have any domesticated animals except for the dog, so they hunted for meat in their diet. Deer and rabbit were the main source of meat for the Hohokam diet, but the Hohodam could have also killed and eaten mountain sheep, antelope and rodents. They could also have eaten tortoises, lizards and snakes.
SECRETED AWAY IN AN ANCIENT POT, THIS CACHE OF SHELL AND BONE AMULETS, FETISHES, NEEDLES, A STONE-TIPPED FORESHAFT AND CREMATED BONES MEANT SOMETHING TO SOMEONE.( Private collection)
Some experts believe that the Hohokam had an extensive trade with the Mesoamerica/Mexico Indians of the time. The culture placed a high value on the shell in which they etched, so perhaps a trading party traveled to the California coast to trade or gather this commodity. The Hohokam are to believed to have traded pottery, cloth, and other such products for shell material. Except for the shell trade, the Hohokam's most important contact was with Mexico, especially the west-central region, which some believe is the origin of the Hohokam culture, as stated before. Such Mesoamerican artifacts such as copper bells, polished plaques of iron pyrite, parrots and macaws were found at some sites and are known to originate in Mexico.
There is information also known about the Hohokam's ritual life and ceremonial life as well. Many of the religious and rituals are known to come from Mesoamerican influence. One piece of evidence to this theory is the ballcourt which the Hohokam built. The first ballcourts were built approximately A.D. 700. The ballcourts were oblong, usually large and plastered with mud such as the shape of a football field. They are thought to be used in largely in rituals or celebrations.
Another ritual of the Hohokam was the one of cremation. This could have included some type of "ritualized" activities. The body was dressed with jewelry and perhaps incense. A crematory pit was built, and wood was placed underneath a platform that was built on top. The whole structure was then set on fire. When the fire had cooled, the pieces of bone and other materials were gathered and placed in bowls or jars and taken to the village cemetery
Another ritual of the Hohokam was the one of cremation. This could have included some type of "ritualized" activities. The body was dressed with jewelry and perhaps incense. A crematory pit was built, and wood was placed underneath a platform that was built on top. The whole structure was then set on fire. When the fire had cooled, the pieces of bone and other materials were gathered and placed in bowls or jars and taken to the village cemetery
The Hohokam Indians toiled the soil of the arid desert for about 1500 years. During that time, they grew and expanded their culture, had extensive trade with Mesoamerica, and developed a unique and distinctive art form that dealt with wonderful shell artifacts. For what ever the reason the Hohokam disappeared, they left us with a mystery to unravel, they left us to listen to them in the brown and quiet desert in which they once farmed and tilled.
SALADO CULTURE
(sah-LAH-doh). [Spanish for "salty"] Another regional culture within the larger Southwest Tradition grouping. They migrated to the Salt River in southeastern Arizona)

The Salado geographical area is comprised of high desert, mountains and river valleys. The Salt River, after which the Salado were named, was the heart of the Salado territory and a major source of water, arable farmland and trade routes to other tribes in the area.

The Salado were in the center of the three major recognized cultures of the Southwest of this time period: the Anasazi to the North, The Mogollon to the East and South, the Hohokam to the West and Southwest.
WERE THE SALADO A SEPARATE & DISTINCTIVE CULTURE?
There is some argument about whether the Salado should be considered a distinct culture. During the 1920s, Harold Gladwin first began investigation into what appeared to be a culture distinct from the Hohokam and Mogollon. While working at a Hohokam site, Casa Grande, Gladwin discovered polychrome pottery and above ground architecture unlike anything previously associated with the Hohokam.
He believed this to be the influence of an invading culture. Later, while excavating Gila Pueblo about 80 miles East of Casa Grande, he discovered this same polychrome pottery and architecture and concluded that this culture was the source of the invasion into Hohokam territory. After years of investigation, Gladwin proposed that the Salado peoples were a mixture of cultures who migrated into the Tonto Basin over a period of years. Gladwin felt that the origins of the Salado came from the Little Colorado River region of northeastern Arizona, bringing Mogollon architecture and pottery traits with them, which they modified as they moved farther South. He believed that another migration, of Anasazi peoples, arrived later bringing more formalized pueblos and further influencing the polychrome pottery style which has come to be termed Salado.
Archaeologists have been Arguing vehemently over whether the Salado were a mixture of Hohokam and Mogollon, Mogollon and Anasazi, Anasazi and Hohokam, or just a subset of a single cultural tradition. Cordell argues against the Salado as a distinct culture, but rather as a subset of the Hohokam. It appears that the Salado were not a regional variant of the Hohokam Culture. As becomes obvious after studying the available information, the Salado were a melting pot of cultures. As visitors and immigrants came through the Salado area, their practices, lifestyles and customs were adopted and adapted based on practicality, applicability and necessity to the Salado peoples.
SALADO PREDECESSORS

There is ample evidence that the Tonto Basin was occupied long before the appearance of the Salado culture.

 By about AD 700, small groups of Hohokam apparently moved into the Tonto Basin from the Phoenix Basin area. Their arrival marked the beginning of canal irrigation and maize cultivation in the Tonto Basin. Why the Hohokam moved into these higher elevations is not known, but evidence exists that climatic conditions were favorable to Hohokam farming methods at that time. The Hohokam established settlements along the Salt River..
MAP OF MAJOR SALADO SITES
These settlements exhibit the characteristics of Hohokam settlements in the Phoenix Basin: clustered arrangement of houses around courtyards, with each courtyard associated with specific cremation cemeteries and trash mounds. Hohokam red-on-buff pottery and ritual paraphernalia is also in evidence.
At the same time that the Salt River area was being settled by Hohokam, other people were settling in the upper Tonto Basin along Tonto Creek. The pottery in these sites was Mogollon in style, although some Hohokam style pottery has also been found. The burial practices appear to be a mixture of Mogollon and Hohokam. The cultural stew was already beginning.
THE SALT RIVER CANYON TODAY:HOME TO THE SALADO PEOPLE
It may be significant to note that, at this time, occupation of the Mimbres Valley in Mogollon territory was breaking down. The Mimbres branch of the Mogollon are best known for their distinctive black-on-white pottery, which appeared in the Mogollon cultural record around 1000 AD.
This is also about the same time that the Mogollon changed from pit houses to above ground pueblos. The Mimbres tradition was very successful, which may have been a contributing factor in their downfall. There is speculation that over-use of the land, combined with a prolonged regional drought created a situation which forced the Mimbres to scatter. The Mimbres disappear from their homeland, and at the same time, significant cultural changes occur in the Tonto Basin and at Casas Grandes in Chihuahua.

By about 1150, Hohokam presence seems to have disappeared in the Tonto area, apparently pulling back into the Phoenix Basin. Hohokam pottery vanishes from the archaeological record and the Hohokam pit houses are replaced by an entirely new style, a style which does not appear in the Phoenix area for several hundred years. At some sites, there appears to be a gap in occupation. The Hohokam had left about 950 to 1000 AD, and no one replaced them for some time. At other sites, however, Hohokam settlements seemed to have been replaced virtually overnight. There is no evidence of concurrent occupation at any given site. Enter the Salado.

 SALADO POTTERY

Salado polychrome pottery appear to be among the most widely traded of all the ceramics of the ancient southwest. Salado pottery has been found as far North as Zuni, as far South as Casas Grandes, and 350 miles East in Roswell, New Mexico. There are three recognized styles of Salado polychrome: Pinto, Gila and Tonto. All were done in red, white and black polychrome included bowls, squat jars and ollas. Tonto differs from Gila in that red was occasionally combined with the white slip and black paint, and sometimes the outside of pots were painted.
Pinto, the earliest, is known for a thin white slip on the insides of bowls, with an organic black paint which was used to paint geometric designs. Shortly thereafter, the Gila polychrome appeared.
SALADO PLAINWARE
SALADO POLYCHROME
This style contained bolder designs applied with heavier paint. Many of these images are duplicated in petroglyphs. . Striations from polishing were occasionally incorporated in the design. Gila polychrome bowls often display a design called a lifeline, a heavy, broad band of paint around the rim that almost always has a break or gap in it . No one knows the meaning of this lifeline. Pinto and Gila style polychrome were most often executed on bowls. Tonto, the third type of Salado
Gila polychrome were often complex and asymmetrical, and sometimes utilized abstract figures. Certain motifs reappear over centuries and thousand of miles of distance. Some of these motifs still appear on Hopi pottery today. Some of the images include snakes, lizards, parrots, stars, the sun, and eyes.
POTTERY FOR EVERY DAY USE AMONG
THE SALADO PEOPLE
SALADO ARCHITECTURE
The Salado, like the Anasazi, built multi-storied structures and, by 1250 to 1300, cliff dwellings began to appear in Salado territory. This occurred about the same time that the Gila polychrome displaced the Pinto style, giving rise to speculation that an Anasazi migration may have arrived and been integrated into the Salado culture. Some of the cliff dwellings were constructed with T shaped doorways like those found in many Anasazi cliff dwellings.
Some of these doorways are also found in Mogollon pueblos, such as Casas Grandes. At some Salado sites, these doorways were later modified to an L shape. The Anasazi and later Mogollon practice of incorporating Kivas into residential compounds was not adopted by the Salado.
Platform mounds were built at regular intervals along Tonto Creek and the Salt River. These appear to have had a variety of purposes: ceremonial sites, burial mounds, food distribution centers, and some appear to have had homes of elite located on them. The locations along the rivers are key, since the mounds appear to anchor the irrigation canals, a vital resource for the Salado. The Salado irrigated about 2000 acres of land, mostly cultivating corn and beans, but also cotton, squash and amaranth. . Twenty of these large platform mounds have been found in the Tonto Basin. These are usually about 10 to 12 feet high and cover an area about half the size of a modern football field. Construction of these mounds would have required organized effort over a long period of time. This generally implies a class structure or civic/religious organization which can employ or coerce a large working class for manual labor. By locating their homes on top of these mounds, the elite would have been able to control access to water, arable land and food distribution. The Hohokam, renown for their platform mounds, generally constructed ball courts in association with the platform mounds. To date, no ballcourts have been discovered in Salado territory, however. There is some disagreement as to whether the Hohokam introduced platform mounds to the Salado or vice versa.
There were several large Salado towns of 150 to 450 rooms which housed as many as 1500 people. Other urban centers consist of dozens of separate compounds of thirty to 100 rooms each. Not all of these were located along the river system. Besh Be Gowah, in Globe was one of the larger Salado communities. Based on the type and number of artifacts discovered there, it is believed to have been a major trade center, bringing finished and unfinished goods from as far away and Casas Grandes, the Pacific and Gulf Coasts and Anasazi villages to the North. There appears to have been an artisan class resident at Besh Be Gowah.
IT IS ESTIMATED THAT THE TONTO BASIN MAY HAVE SUPPORTED UP TO 10,000 PEOPLE.
SALADO BURIAL PRACTICES
Mortuary practices help distinguish one culture from another. For instance, the Hohokam were known to cremate their dead, whereas the Anasazi and Mogollon buried their dead. The Anasazi generally buried their dead in the flexed position under room floors, trash dumps, rock crevices or even in abandoned storage pits. The Mogollon buried their dead in an extended supine position beneath room floors, presumably the floor of the house/room where the person had lived. The Salado also buried their dead in the extended supine position, but generally used distinct cemetery areas such as plazas or patios. At Besh Be Gowah, for instance, over 150 burials were exhumed from the central plaza. The preparation of the deceased and the mortuary offerings buried with the dead suggest a social structure including elites with substantial material differences. Most graves were simple holes with a few modest offerings. Some graves, however, were clay or stone-lined pits covered with stone or timber caps and contained a wide variety of offerings. These included furniture, effigy vessels, awls, rare minerals, obsidian and turquoise.
EXTENDED BURIRIAL OF SALADO DIFFERED FROM HOHOKAM CREMATION
This sleeveless cotton tunic seen on the left was made by a non-loom technique known as sprang which creates an interlinked structure. The fiber is handspun cotton. The design motifs--running triangles and interlocking rectilinear scrolls--are also found on contemporary painted pottery and petroglyphs. This rare find dates from ca1300-1450 AD, from the Tonto-Roosevelt Basin in Central Arizona.
There appears to have been an abundance of leisure time, which enabled the Salado to develop certain crafts to a high level of sophistication. In addition to pottery, the Salado were excellent weavers and stone workers. Some Salado artifacts found include woven yucca sandals, beautifully woven cradleboards, grass hairbrushes, belts, kilts, ponchos, breechcloths, baskets, rope, and pot rests. Pieces of woven textiles, in addition to wads of cleaned and uncleaned cotton, have been found at Salado sites, indicating that looms must have been used, although none have been found. Of great interest was the discovery of a piece of plaid cloth, one of the few samples of true plaid found in the Americas.
So what happened to the Salado, where did they go?
No one is sure. It seems clear that the Salado were severely impacted by environmental catastrophes which devastated much of the Southwest between 1400 and 1450. Tree ring data from the Tonto Basin show that devastating floods were followed by prolonged drought. All of the cultural groups of the Southwest experienced population drops, abandonment of cities and general breakdown of cultural patterns and traditions. It seems that the long term stress brought on by the environment factors virtually destroyed some of these cultures. The Salado disappear. 

There is evidence of warfare between Salado villages as resources became more and more scarce. Besh Be Gowah and Gila Pueblo were villages about 2 miles apart. They existed in peace for over 2 centuries. Archaeological evidence indicates that the Besh Be Gowan may have attacked and destroyed the Gila Pueblo some time after 1400. The village was burned. Human remains indicate that many of the villagers were killed and their homes burned with the bodies in them. There were not enough survivors to bury the dead. Other villages appear to have been abandoned suddenly. Even easily portable artifacts were left behind. Were they driven out, or were they so weak and desperate that they could only carry absolute necessities?

 No one knows where the survivors went. Some speculate that they migrated to Casas Grandes in Mexico, others suggest that they went North and became integrated into the remnants of the Anasazi, to become the ancestors of the Hopi and other pueblo peoples. We may never know. As with their origins, their ultimate fate is a mystery. They came from nowhere and everywhere, they dispersed to nowhere and everywhere. Most likely, they scattered, joining various groups depending on where they thought they could best survive. 

Some modern day Native Americans can point to the Anasazi, Hohokam or Mogollon as their ancestors. Not so the Salado. They have left behind tantalizing remnants of their once thriving culture, but we have yet to determine their ultimate fate.

SKIP INTO HISTORIC TIMES FOR A MOMENT: THE "PAPAGO" (O'ODHAM) AND PIMANS
When the Spanish began exploring Northern Sonora, it was inhabited by Pima Indians, a semi-agricultural people who foraged for food when crops were poor. The Indians living in the San Pedro valley at the time the Spanish first entered North America were described by Jaramillo as follows: We went through deserted country for about four days to another river, which we heard called Nexpa, where some poor Indians came out to see the general, with presents of little value, with some stalks of roasted maguey & pitahayas."

When Father Kino entered the San Pedro valley around 1692, about one hundred and fifty years later, the Sobaipuri Indians had a very similar lifestyle. Pimas, Sobas, Sobaipuris and the Papagos, who lived west of the Santa Cruz,were all of Piman stock (O'odham) and spoke similar languages. Kino, who was fluent in the Pima language, was able to identify these similarities. Living along the rivers, these O'odham used the scanty water for irrigation and successfully raised cotton, maize and beans," 

PADRE KINO'S REMAINS CAN BE SEEN TODAY IN MAGDALINA, MEXICO
PORTRAIT OF PADRE KINO. Kino would refer to the Indian lifestyle as “Heathen Vagabondage,”
Click Next For The Conclusion Of Archaeology Of Arizona THE ANASAZI